Historically, the structure of local communities (e.g., the numbers and types of species) was thought to be primarily influenced by an interaction between local environmental (e.g., productivity, disturbance) and biotic (e.g., competition, predation) factors. The metacommunity perspective consider the importance of regional processes such as dispersal and regional heterogeneity. The formalization of the idea that variation in dispersal rates can influence local community structure dates at least as far back as the theory of island biogeography (MacArthur & Wilson 1967). The idea became central to community ecology after Levins defined metapopulations (Levins 1970) and Levins and Culver (1971) applied the concept to competition theory. Thirty years after the seminal works by MacArthur, Wilson and Levins, ecologists have synthesized these different approaches into a common framework under metacommunity ecology (Leibold et al. 2004). Four conceptual models have being used to describe metacommunities. These simplified model (patch-dynamic, species-sorting the mass-effect and neutral) were referring to the different processes that could shape metacommunity assembly and dynamics (competition, heterogeneity, dispersal, neutrality) have helped to simplify thinking about metacommunities and were useful tools for introducing some of the properties than could emerge in metacommunities.

MacArthur R.H. & Wilson E.O. (1967). The Theory of Island Biogeography. Princeton University Press. Leibold M.A., Holyoak M., Mouquet N., P. A., J. C., M. H., R. H., J. S., R. L., D. T., M. L. & A. G. (2004). The metacommunity concept: A framework for multi-scale community ecology. Ecology letters, 7, 601-613. Levins R. (1970). Extinction. In: Some mathematical problems in biology (ed. Gerstenhaber). American Mathematical society, pp. 77-107. Levins R. & Culver D. (1971). Regional coexistence of species and competition between rare species. Proceeding of the National Academy of Science USA, 68, 1246-1248.

Most of my research program on metacommunity has been concerned with two of the above-described paradigms, respectively the mass effect (referred to as source sink) and the patch dynamics (mostly by studying models of competition colonization trade-offs). I also worked on disentangling the drivers of metacommunity structure across spatial scales using various empirical datasets. This research has also resulted in producing reviews papers and integrated approches. I combined modelling approaches, analysis of empirical datasets and experimental approaches with microorganisms and plants.

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Metacommunities are organised in space and time (Figure (c) Nicolas Mouquet)

OTHER TOPICS: Aesthetics of Biodiversity, Biodiversity & Ecosystem Functioning, Biogeography, Macroecology & Ecophylogenetics, Experimental Evolution, Functional Biogeography, Functional Rarity, Metaecosystems, Reviews and Synthesis, Trophic Biogeography & Metaweb

Source sink metacommunities

Mouquet N., Gravel D., Massol F. and Calcagno V. (2013). Extending the concept of keystone species to communities and ecosystems. Ecology Letters, 16, 1-8, doi:10.1111/ele.12014

Matias M.G., Mouquet N. and Chase J.M. (2012). Dispersal stochasticity mediates species richness in source sink metacommunities. Oikos, 122, 395-402, doi:10.1111/j.1600-0706.2012.20479.x

Bouvier T., Venail P., Pommier T.,Bouvier C., Barbera C., and Mouquet N. (2012). Contrasted Effects of Diversity and Immigration on Ecological Insurance in Marine Bacterioplankton Communities. PLoS ONE, 7, e37620, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0037620

Mouquet N., Matthiessen B, Miller T, Gonzalez A (2011). Extinction Debt in Source-Sink Metacommunities. PLoS ONE 6(3): e17567, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0017567

Venail P.A., MacLean R.C., Meynard C.N., and Mouquet N. (2010). Dispersal scales up the biodiversity productivity relationship in an experimental source-sink metacommunity. Proc. R. Soc. B, 277, 2339-2345.

Venail P.A.*, MacLean R.C.*, Bouvier T., Brockhurst M.A., Hochberg M.E. and Mouquet N.* (2008) Functional Diversity and Productivity Peak at Intermediate Levels of Dispersal in Evolving Metacommunities. Nature, 452, 210-215, doi:10.1038/nature06554 (* These authors contributed equally to this study).

Mouquet N., Miller T.E., Daufresne T., and Kneitel J.M., (2006). Consequences of varying regional heterogeneity in source sink metacommunities: a mechanistic model. Oikos, 113, 481-488, doi:10.1111/j.2006.0030-1299.14582.x

Mouquet N., Leadley P., Meriget J. and Loreau M. (2004). Immigration and local competition in herbaceous plant communities: a three-year seed-sowing experiment. Oikos, 104, 77-90, doi:10.1111/j.0030-1299.2004.12644.x Erratum.

Mouquet N. and Loreau, M. (2003). Community patterns in source-sink metacommunities. American Naturalist, 162, 544-557, doi:10.1086/378857

Mouquet N. and Loreau M. (2002) Coexistence in a metacommunity: The regional similarity hypothesis. American Naturalist, 159, 420-426, doi:10.1086/338996

Loreau M. and Mouquet N. (1999). Immigration and the maintenance of local species diversity. American Naturalist 154, pp. 427-440, doi:10.1086/303252

Competition colonization trade off

Livingston G.,Matias W.M., Calcagno C., Barbera C., Combe M., Leibold M. and Mouquet N. (2012). Competition colonization dynamics in experimental bacterial metacommunities. Nature Communication, 3, 1234, doi:10.1038/ncomms2239

Calcagno V., Mouquet N., Jarne P., and David P. (2006). Which immigration policy for optimal coexistence?. Ecology Letters, 9, 909-911, doi:10.1111/j.1461-0248.2006.00947.x

Calcagno V., Mouquet N., Jarne P., and David P. (2006). Coexistence in a metacommunity: the competition-colonization trade-off is NOT dead. Ecology Letters, 9, 897–907, doi:10.1111/j.1461-0248.2006.00930.x

Trophic metacommunity

Calcagno V., Massol F., Mouquet N., Jarne P. and David P. (2011). Constraints on food chain length arising from regional metacommunity dynamics. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Serie B, 278, 3042-3049, doi:10.1098/rspb.2011.0112

Gravel D., Canard E., Guichard F. and Mouquet N. (2011). Persistence Increases with Diversity and Connectance in Trophic Metacommunities. PLoS ONE, 6(5): e19374, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0019374

Gravel D., Guichard F., Loreau M. and Mouquet N. (2010). Source and sink dynamics in metaecosystems. Ecology, 91, 2172-2184, doi:10.1890/09-0843.1

Gravel D., Mouquet N., Loreau M., and Guichard F. (2010). Patch Dynamics, Persistence, and Species Coexistence in Metaecosystems. The American Naturalist, 176, 289-302, doi:10.1086/655426

Disentangling the drivers of metacommunity structure

Xavier Jordani, M. Mouquet, N., Casatti, L., Menin, M., de Cerqueira Rossa Feres, D. & Helene Albert, C.H. (2019). Intraspecific and interspecific trait variability in tadpole metacommunities from the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest. Ecology and evolution 9 (7), 4025-4037, doi:10.1002/ece3.5031

Henckel, L., Meynard, C.N., Devictor, V., Mouquet, N.& Bretagnolle, V. (2019). On the relative importance of space and environment in farmland bird community assembly. PloS one 14 (3), e0213360, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0213360

Moritz, C., Meynard, C.N., Devictor, V., Guizien, K., Labrune, C., Guarini, J.M., & Mouquet N. (2013). Disentangling the role of connectivity, environmental filtering, and spatial structure on metacommunity dynamics. Oikos, 122, 1401-1410, doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0706.2013.00377.x

Meynard C.M., Lavergne S., Boulangeat I., Garraud L., Van Es J., Mouquet N. and Thuiller W. (2013). Disentangling the drivers of metacommunity structure across spatial scales. Journal of Biogeography, 40, 1560-1571, doi:10.1111/jbi.12116

Integrative approaches & Reviews

Fournier, B.,Mouquet, N., Leibold, M.A., Gravel, D.(2017). An integrative framework of coexistence mechanisms in competitive metacommunities. Ecography,40,630-641, doi:10.1111/ecog.02137

Hubert, N., Calcagno, V., Etienne, R.S. and Mouquet N. (2015). Metacommunity speciation models and their implications for diversification theory. Ecology Letters, 18, 864-881, doi:10.1111/ele.12458

Warren, B.H., Simberloff, D., Ricklefs, R.E., Aguilee, R., Condamine, F.L., Gravel, D., Morlon, H., Mouquet N., Rosindell, J., Casquet, J., Conti, E., Cornuault, J., Fernandez-Palacios, J.M., Hengl, T., Norder, S.J., Rijsdijk, K.F., Sanmartin, I., Strasberg, D., Triantis, K.A., Valente, L.M., Whittaker, R.J., Gillespie, R.G., Emerson, B.C., Thebaud, C. (2015). Islands as model systems in ecology and evolution: prospects fifty years after MacArthur-Wilson. Ecology Letters, 18, 200-217, doi:10.1111/ele.12398

Loreau, M., Daufresne, T., Gonzalez, A., Gravel, D., Guichard, F., Leroux, S.J., Loeuille, N., Massol, F. and Mouquet, N. (2013). Unifying sources and sinks in ecology and Earth sciences. Biological Review, 88, 365-79, doi:10.1111/brv.12003

Mouquet N., Gravel D., Massol F. and Calcagno V. (2013). Extending the concept of keystone species to communities and ecosystems. Ecology Letters, 16, 1-8, doi:10.1111/ele.12014

Poisot T., Canard E., Mouillot D., Mouquet N. and Gravel D. (2012). The dissimilarity of species interaction networks. Ecology Letters, 15, 1353-1361, doi:10.1111/ele.12002, suppl. mat., R package

Logue J.B., Mouquet N., Hannes Peter H., Hillebrand H., and The Metacommunity Working Group*. (2011). Empirical approaches to metacommunities: a review and comparison with theory. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 26, 482-491, doi:10.1016/j.tree.2011.04.009 * Priscilla Declerck, Andreas Flohre, Stephan Gantner, Nils Gulzow, Paul Hortnagl, Sandra Meier and Bert Pecceu.

Massol F., Gravel D., Mouquet N., Cadotte M.W., Fukami T. and Leibold M.A. (2011). Linking community and ecosystem dynamics through spatial ecology. Ecology Letters, 14, 313-323, doi:10.1111/j.1461-0248.2011.01588.x

Mouquet N., Hoopes M.F., and Amarasekare P. (2005). The world is patchy and heterogeneous! Trade-off and source sink dynamics in competitive metacommunities. In : Metacommunities: Spatial dynamics and ecological communities. Eds M. Holyoak, M A. Leibold and R. Holt. Chicago University Press.

Holyoak M., Leibold M.A., Mouquet N., and Holt R.D. (2005). Metacommunities: A framework for large-scale community ecology. In : Metacommunities: Spatial dynamics and ecological communities. Eds M. Holyoak, M A. Leibold and R. D. Holt. Chicago University Press.

Chase J., Amarasekare P., Cottenie K., Gonzalez A., Holt R., Holyoak M., Hoopes M.F, Law R., Leibold M.A., Loreau M., Mouquet N., Shurin J., and Tilman D. (2005). Competing theories for competitive metacommunities. In : Metacommunities: Spatial dynamics and ecological communities. Eds M. Holyoak, M A. Leibold and R. D. Holt. Chicago University Press.

Amarasekare P., Hoopes M.F., Mouquet N., and Holyoak M. (2004). Mechanisms of coexistence in competitive metacommunities. American Naturalist, 164, 310-326, doi:10.1086/422858

Leibold M.A., Holyoak M., Mouquet N., Amarasekare P., Chase J., Hoopes M., Holt R., Shurin J.B., Law R., Tilman D., Loreau M., and Gonzalez A. (2004). The metacommunity concept: A framework for multi-scale community ecology. Ecology letters, 7, 601-613, doi:10.1111/j.1461-0248.2004.00608.x