Meynard C.N., Mouillot D., Mouquet N. and Douzery E.J.P. (2012).

PLoS ONE, 7, e36443, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0036443

Key message :Here, we infer the timing and geographic origins of Mediterranean teleost species diversity using nucleotide sequences collected from GenBank. We assembled a DNA supermatrix composed of four mitochondrial genes (12S ribosomal DNA, 16S ribosomal DNA, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and cytochrome b) and two nuclear genes (rhodopsin and recombination activating gene I), including 62% of Mediterranean teleost species plus 9 outgroups. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic and dating analyses were calibrated using 20 fossil constraints. An additional 124 species were grafted onto the chronogram according to their taxonomic affinity, checking for the effects of taxonomic coverage in subsequent diversification analyses. We then interpreted the time-line of teleost diversification in light of Mediterranean historical biogeography, distinguishing nonendemic natives, endemics and exotic species. Results show that the major Mediterranean orders are of Cretaceous origin, specifically ,100-80 Mya, and most Perciformes families originated 80-50 Mya. Two important clade origin events were detected. The first at 100-80 Mya, affected native and exotic species, and reflects a global diversification period at a time when the Mediterranean Sea did not yet exist. The second occurred during the last 50 Mya, and is noticeable among endemic and native species, but not among exotic species. This period corresponds to isolation of the Mediterranean from Indo-Pacific waters before the Messinian salinity crisis. The Mediterranean fish fauna illustrates well the assembly of regional faunas through origination and immigration, where dispersal and isolation have shaped the emergence of a biodiversity hotspot.

Dated phylogeny of Mediterranean teleost fishes. Phylogenetic relationships and divergence time estimates of Mediterranean teleosts, inferred from a supermatrix of 6 mitochondrial and nuclear genes. The global phylogeny is given on the upper left, with black branches indicating the part of the tree that is represented on the right panel. Color codes on species names indicate the origin of the species: green = extra-Mediterranean species; red = exotic species; blue = endemic species; black = non-endemic native. The green dashed boxes around nodes indicate the 95% credibility interval for the estimated node age (high res version of the figure here : doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0036443.g001)

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OTHER TOPICS: Aesthetics of Biodiversity, Biodiversity & Ecosystem Functioning, Biogeography, Macroecology & Ecophylogenetics, Experimental Evolution, Functional Biogeography, Functional Rarity, Metacommunities, Metaecosystems, Reviews and Synthesis, Trophic Biogeography & Metaweb